The Origin of the Soul in the Process of Ordinary Generation

The source of the soul in the process of ordinary generation is far from a hot-button topic. There is no great deal of available material on the subject, no classic books (to my limited knowledge) dealing with the topic alone.

As a subject of study, theories regarding the soul’s origin will impact the Christian doctrines of original sin and Christology, pedagogic philosophies such as Tabula Rasa, and anthropological theories regarding environmentalism and positivism.

In the course of this short work it is the intent to comment briefly on the relation between specific theories of the soul’s generation and the relevant Christian dogmas but to pursue it’s outworking’s no further than a small excursion into these, the most nearly related of subjects.

Let us now meet the contestants. There are two competing doctrines as to the origin of the soul in ordinary generation (I use the lengthy phrase “origin of the soul in ordinary generation” because cases of unusual generation such as Adam, Christ, and perhaps Eve are exempted from falling under any doctrinal conclusions reached): Creationism and Traducianism.

Creationism teaches that in the process of generation the flesh of man is created by the successful implanting of the male sperm in the female egg and God then immediately (directly) creates the soul which is joined to the flesh of the newly conceived child.

Traducianism holds that conception is the direct origin of both the body and the soul; God choosing to create both mediately through the natural generation of the parents.

As is the case with many Bible dogmas there are no passages to which one can turn and find a single verse conclusion to this debate. However, once searched thoroughly, there does appear a large amount of relative material which it is my belief can decisively settle the argument.

The creation of the first man was a direct act of God. God fashioned Adam’s body from the earth and breathed a rational soul into him (Gen. 2:7). Naturally Adam’s generation would fall under the Creationist theory, his origin being the immediate work of God for both body and soul. The next created person was the woman, Eve. Here the Scripture relates Eve’s flesh as being taken out of Adam but it is silent regarding the origin of her soul. Of course there is no normal process of generation here at work, but the cautious reader must maintain a ready ear and open eye in places where the Scripture is silent.

Regardless of whether God immediately created Adam and Eve or only Adam the fact is that, Christ alone excepted, theirs is the only case of exemption from the ordinary laws of generation. That is to say that neither Adam nor Eve were conceived through carnal relations. Also bearing on the subject is that the first couple were made upright, in the freedom of a will untainted by sin, and under no condemnation of God.

The first instance of natural generation was the birth of Cain. The Bible does not give a direct testimony regarding the origin of Cain’s soul. Was it a direct creation of God or was it’s origin in accord with the natural conception realized in Adam’s knowing his wife?

Perhaps a definitive answer is beyond our grasp but a well constructed approximation can here be advanced.
Upon completion of His creative work God declared all that He had made “very good.” But in between this pronouncement of goodness upon the creation and the generation of Cain a radical change occurred. Sin entered the world and man in particular was affected. Man was no longer “very good” but was now corrupted in both soul and flesh. Ecclesiastes 7:29 says “God hath made man upright; but they have sought out many inventions.” If man’s soul was now really and actually corrupt then this would lend great credence to the soul of Cain being of mediate origin through the act of conception. Would God create a soul that was evil and depraved? The source of Cain’s wickedness was clearly his parental descent. Was this inheritance of wickedness merely fleshly or did it pertain to his heart as well?

Jeremiah 17:9, using the term “heart” as a substitute for soul, says “The heart is deceitful above all things, and desperately wicked: who can know. it?” Cain was undoubtedly created with a wicked heart (soul) seeking out many inventions. The question is, did God directly create this wicked soul? There is further Scriptural material which can supply an answer to this question.
Speaking with Nicodemus in regards the spiritual regeneration of the new birth Christ says in John 3:6: “That which is born of the flesh is flesh; and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit.” To be born of the flesh as Christ means it is to be born of woman, inclusive of flesh and spirit. The carnal mind (spirit or soul) is enmity with God (Rom. 8:7) and is so from conception. David testifies to this in the 51st Psalm: “Behold, I was shapen in iniquity; and in sin did my mother conceive me.” If the natural process of generation produces a body and a soul that are enmity with God then the strong inference would be that the body and the soul are not the direct or immediate creation of God. They are both mediately derived from the parents through the process of conception.

This line of thinking would establish Traduction as the suggested theory of the origin of the soul. Other Scriptural passages use language which would reinforce this assumption. Genesis 46:26, speaking of Jacob’s descent into Egypt, says “All the souls that came with Jacob into Egypt, which came out of his loins…”. To speak of the souls of Jacob’s children as coming from his loins is indicative of the fact that Moses assumed that the body and the soul alike of said children found their genesis in Jacob.

Back to the case of Eve, Paul speaks of her generation in I Corinthians 11:8 saying “For the man is not of the woman; but the woman of the man.” It is possible that Paul may here be speaking of Eve in regards to the origin of her flesh only but it is not likely. Consider: the context of this passage is that man is federal head to woman (certainly a dogma which incorporates the soul) in the same way that Christ is federal head to man. The specific topics are conduct in the worship of God and prayer (spiritual topics). The tenor and scope of this passage would indicate that Paul assumed Eve was drawn from Adam in both body and flesh. Adding further bearing on this topic the passage continues in vs 12: “For as the woman is of the man, even so is the man also by the woman; but all things of God.” Man is by woman in the same way that woman is of man, and all are of God. If it is Paul’s assumption that Eve was of Adam in both body and soul and the allusion between her creation and the subsequent process of natural generation is to hold then it must also be his assumption that the soul and body are “by woman.” Of course both body and soul are the mediate creation of God; conception being the ordained secondary means employed.

In conclusion of the Biblical arguments it is necessary to observe the doctrine of secondary means. Back to the starting point of creation, we read in Genesis 2:2-3 “And on the seventh day God ended his work which he had made; and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had made. And God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it: because that in it he had rested from all his work which God created and made.” The stated doctrine here is that God completed His creative work in six days and from thenceforward did “in his ordinary providence, maketh use of means, yet is free to work without, above, and against them, at His pleasure (Westminster Confession v. 3). The working without, above, and against secondary causes which the confession here has in mind are extraordinary miraculous works such as talking donkeys, floating axe heads, and the sun standing still in the heavens. The scriptural footnotes attached reveal that nothing so commonplace as natural generation was viewed by the Westminster Assembly as under God’s immediate works. Of course the hand of God in conception and generation are not to be denied. He is the first cause of all things and yet “by the same providence, He ordereth them to fall out, according to the nature of second causes… (Westminster Confession v. 2).

This received doctrine of causation, combined with the Bible’s testimony of God’s resting from His immediate acts of creation, would seem to put the scales firmly in a balance which favors Traducianism over Creationism. That is to say that the available Scriptural evidence indicates that both the body and the soul are derived from the process of natural generation.

Education and the Southern Tradition

Theories of education in any land are never easily divorced from the prevailing ideas regarding civics and economics. Education’s function, particularly toward the young, will become merely to render them fit to partake in the civic and economic institutions of a nation. Thus its methods and goals will be shaped by these spheres. The end result is a reciprocal relationship with the intended destination; successful integration into and participation with the national economy shaping and being shaped by the route traveled to reach that destination.

Our age is an age of Democracy and the means and stated goals of educational method (called pedagogy) now in vogue can only be understood when viewed with this fact in mind. Democracy (rule of the many) as a political institution is inseparably connected with the people who advocate it and staff its institutions: the middle class.

The middle class began to arise in Europe just as the Medieval era was drawing to a close and the Renaissance was dawning. They emerged as a third factor between the traditional landed aristocracy and the agricultural peasantry. Concerning themselves with the exchange of goods and being defined by their urban lifestyles, the middle class lacked the security and permanence of the older peasant and aristocratic classes.

For these and other reasons psychic insecurity became the keynote outlook of the new middle-class outlook. It still is. The only remedy for this insecurity of the middle class seemed to it to be the accumulation of more possessions that could be a demonstration to the world of the individual’s importance and power.
~~ Carroll Quigley; Tragedy and Hope; pp. 1235-1236

Liberal democracy in the West today still reflects the middle class idea that the primary way for men to distinguish themselves is through material advancement. Quigley refers to this as the “Acquisitive Society.” Naturally the goals of education in an Acquisitive Society are to teach men how to acquire material things.

The study of the ethereal is seen as a waste of time. Epistemological first principles are not necessary as long as the student picks up useful habits for trade and vocation. It is not necessary that the pupil know how to think, education must teach him how to make a living. Emphasis in this type of pedagogic economy turns to the material, the tangible, and the useful.

French political theorist Alexis de Tocqueville explained the effect of the middle class mindset on education in 1830’s New England, saying,

The northerner is absorbed, as it were, by the very material concerns that the white southerner disdains. From childhood on he must struggle against misery, and he learns to place comfort above all the pleasures of the mind and heart. His imagination, concentrated on life’s petty details, suffocates; his ideas are fewer in number and less general, but they become more practical, clearer, and more precise. Since all his intellectual effort is bent solely to the study of well-being, he soon excels at it… The northerner has knowledge as well as experience. Nevertheless, he does not prize knowledge as a pleasure but esteems it as a means, and only its useful applications whet his appetite.
~~ Alexis de Tocqueville; Democracy in America; pp. 433-434

Tocqueville concludes that these are “the qualities and flaws characteristic of the middle class,” and they certainly hold sway in modern educational theory.

But this servile focus in education was not characteristic of the Old South. The mindset and outlook of her men was different. This was equally reflected in her institutions and economy.

Aristocracy had been transplanted from Europe to the South in a way that had never gripped the North. The Puritan settlers of New England had come with their middle class mindset and the relative barrenness of that land had not allowed the conditions necessary for gentrification to take place.

Contrast the Congregationalist Puritans of New England with the English Episcopalians and Scottish Presbyterians of Virginia and South Carolina who founded large plantations, acquired slaves, and successfully utilized the fertility of the southern soil. The status of men in such a system was based upon heredity and inheritance, just as it had been in the Old World. The daily life of the Planter was not consumed with material concern and to flout possession as a means of status was base and crass.

To miss the link between aristocracy and leisure on the one hand and slavery and the plantations on the other is to misunderstand why Virginia and South Carolina vastly outstripped New England in the production of statesmen in the Colonial era. Being freed from the daily schemes of worldly advancement the youth of the South were trained in oratory, rhetoric, languages, and literature. In short, they were trained in the Liberal Arts.

Tocqueville comments on the predominant mindset of the Planter in the 1830s:

In the southern states, man’s most pressing needs are always satisfied. Thus the southerner is not preoccupied with life’s material concerns. Someone else bears the burden of looking after these on his behalf. Free in this respect, his imagination turns to other objects, grander and less precisely defined. The southerner loves grandeur, luxury, glory, excitement, pleasure, and above all idleness. Nothing obliges him to exert himself in order to live… The southerner is more spontaneous (than his northern counterpart), wittier, more open, generous, intellectual, and brilliant.
~~ Alexis de Tocqueville; Democracy in America; pp. 433-434

This, this is the philosophy that gave rise to Madison, Jefferson, Randolph, Washington, Macon, and Henry in their generation, Calhoun and Tyler in the next, and Stephenson, Davis, Lee, and Jackson in their turn. These men furnished their conservative minds with a liberal education.

There is a warning to be heeded as these two systems of thought and education are compared. The aristocratic avoidance of labor is a weakness compared to the can-do attitude of a democratic people. Necessary to a society that will last is a balancing of both. The Southern people have for a long time learned how to work. Providence has ensured that. They must relearn how to think. If we are truly to emulate the forefathers we profess to love so much we must no longer ignore or even mock the means and standards of education that played such a factor in making them great. We must take back that which is rightfully ours.

When the finest instructor at Virginia’s finest seminary prepared a course on the topics of oratory and rhetoric in the 1870s, his shelves were lined with Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, and Horace. Do we still teach our sons oratory and rhetoric? Much less from the works of men such as these.

Thomas Jefferson wrote to John Brazier in 1819 on the subject of classical learning saying,

To the moralist they (the Greek and Latin classics) are valuable, because they furnish ethical writings highly and justly esteemed… The lawyer finds in the Latin language the system of civil law most conformable with the principles of justice of any which has ever yet been established among men… The physician as good a code of his art as has been given to this day.
~~ Thomas Jefferson; Writings; p. 1424

Tocqueville wrote on the usefulness of classical studies for a democratic people:

Indeed, a glance at texts left us by Antiquity is enough to reveal that although ancient writers sometimes lacked variety and imagination in their choice of subjects and boldness, energy, and generality in their thought, they always demonstrated admirable mastery of technique and care in rendering details. Nothing in their work seems hasty or accidental. Everything is written for connoisseurs, and the search for ideal beauty is always apparent. No literature brings out the qualities that writers in democracies naturally lack better than that of the Ancients. Hence there is no literature more appropriate for study in democratic centuries.
~~ Alexis de Tocqueville; Democracy in America; pp. 545-546

This was the taste in education in a day when our people did great things. In his 1930 essay The Irrepressible Conflict, Frank Lawrence Owsley spoke of the deluge of Yankee textbooks and the reconstruction of Southern education. The eventual result of this mental reconstruction has been the abandonment of the broad and liberal education which the South used to furnish her sons. Gone are the Greek and Latin, the literature and letters, oratory, rhetoric, and the martial sciences. In their place are the servile and material preoccupations which characterize education amongst a democratic people. It is high time this stopped.

There is much to be gained in putting a stop to it. For starters, the government schools sure aren’t going to be of any help. Over the decades, nothing has contributed more to our loss of identity and character then the prevalence of government education. Southerners who really want to reclaim their heritage by seeing their children get a truly Southern education are going to have to look elsewhere than the government schools that have done so much harm to us.

As an added bonus, our nation is in desperate need for the type of men the South used to produce. We are long overdue for real leadership by men of vision and integrity who can integrate multiple fields of knowledge. The servile focus on economic production has driven democratic education into the dangerous waters of “specialization,” and left wide open the door of opportunity for those who will but walk through.

Carroll Quigley summarized our plight fifty years ago when he wrote:

These remarks bring us close to one of the major problems in American culture today. We need a culture that will produce people eager to do things, but we need even more a culture that will make it possible to decide what to do. This is the old division of means and goals. Decisions about goals require values, meaning, context, perspective. They can be set, even tentatively and approximately, only by people who have some inkling of the whole picture. The middle-class culture of our past ignored the whole picture and destroyed our ability to see it by its emphasis on specialization.
~~ Carroll Quigley; Tragedy and Hope; p. 1274

Values, meaning, context, perspective, these are things that our nation desperately needs today. They are things we can stand up and provide. The South still faintly holds onto the religious principles which make values and meaning possible for a people. She can put these things into context and perspective if she will once again take up the education necessary to do so. If she fails, we will continue to slide until our character, identity, and faith are gone.

Richard Weaver discussed the clash of these two mindsets in education and the clash of the men they produce. He feared the dominance of the compartmentalized specialist and men of mean mind. Yet these are the men we have lived under since World War II. Do we have it within us to rest the education of our young away from Washington D.C.? To begin rebuilding minds that will rebuild our land? The fields lie fallow and whatever we sow, that shall we reap.

In closing, I will have Richard Weaver summarize what has been said:

It will be useful to review here this flight toward periphery, or the centrifugal impulse of our culture. In the Middle Ages, when there obtained a comparatively clear perception of reality, the possessor of highest learning was the philosophic doctor. He stood at the center of things because he had mastered principles. On a level far lower were those who had acquired only facts and skills. It was the abandonment of metaphysics and theology which undermined the position of the philosophic doctor, a position remarkably like that prescribed by Plato for the philosopher-king. For the philosopher doctor was in charge of the general synthesis. The assertion that philosophy is queen of studies meant more to him than a figure of speech; knowledge of ultimate matters conferred a right to decide ultimate questions… In the course of the evolution that we have traced the philosophic doctor was displaced; but a substitute had to be found, for synthesis required the reconciling of all interests.
In attenuated form the ideal survives until today, though the forces of modernism conspire to extinguish it… In the United States the new and old Europe came into conflict in 1861… The South’s tradition of learning was the Ciceronian tradition of eloquent wisdom, and this circumstance explains why the major creative political figures of America, from Jefferson through Lincoln to Wilson, have come from this section. But the Civil War brought defeat… Europe, after the agony of the first World War, turned … for leadership, to gangsters, who, though they are often good entrepreneurs, are without codes and without inhibitions. Such leaders in Europe have given us a preview of what the collapse of values and the reign of specialization will produce.
~~ Richard Weaver; Ideas Have Consequences; pp. 49-51

In Memoriam or in Defense ?

A wise son maketh a glad father: but a foolish man despiseth his mother.
– Proverbs 15:20
Train up a child in the way he should go: and when he is old, he will not depart from it.
– Proverbs 22:6
A noble civilization can withstand the bereavement of its sons and daughters through warfare, through pestilence, and famine. Yet there is a ruination which, when it comes down upon the head of a people, signifies their impending doom with an ominous foreboding. This tragedy of tragedies, this point of no return, is the turning away of the hearts of a people’s posterity.
That gentle connection, that loving nurture which attaches father and son, mother and daughter, generation after generation, is necessary for the preservation of any culture. Once broken, a gulf which cannot be spanned begins to open. This unbridgeable gap is not the physical destitution of a mother who’s sons have been claimed by war, it is the distance of heart which appears between flesh and blood in the twilight of a civilization.
Southern poet and essayist, John Crowe Ransom once wrote, “Affections, and long memories, attach to the ancient Bowers of life in the provinces; but they will not attach to what is always changing.”
And change, not pursued for betterment but merely for change itself, or hatred of the past, has become the only stable factor in our land today. Men’s hearts burn within them for something new. Fools forsake that which money cannot buy in vain attempt to satiate their material desires. Everywhere the “ancient Bowers of life” are forsaken for that which is fleeting. And it shows.
We have become a people with no soul, no culture, and no nobility of character. To quote C.S. Lewis “We make men without chests and expect from them virtue and enterprise. We laugh at honor and are shocked to find traitors in our midst.”
Indeed there are traitors in our midst. Men who betray the hopes and labors of their forefathers to pursue the terminally trendy expectations of society gone mad. Men seek to attach dollar values to the tender affections of a mother towards the children she has born or the humble pride which a man takes in his sons. Yet these things can never be purchased, they must be earned.
What is it that truly makes up the “ancient Bowers of life?” Is it not found in the patience of a man who builds his legacy through toil and tears? Is it not found in the gentle yet tenacious hopes of the frugal woman whose love makes a house a home?
The heart breaks for every abandoned home which once sheltered the labors of a man and a woman engaged in that most virtuous of endeavors: the rearing and discipleship of a posterity and the preservation of a way of life.
Where are her children today? At what point did they cease to appreciate their patrimony and become wooed by that which slips through the hand? The empty kitchen which once knew the elegant bustle of a mother. The dinner table which was once the center of instruction. The tools of a trade, passed from one generation to another. All of these things forsaken, and for what? The deserted home-place is our true national symbol.
19th century theologian Robert Dabney once wrote, “The instrumentalities of the family are chosen and ordained of God as the most efficient of all means of grace—more truly and efficaciously means of saving grace than all the other ordinances of the church. To family piety are given the best promises of the gospel, under the new, as well as under the old dispensation.”
The true and proper estate of religion in our land will never be restored until the hearts of families return to one another. Men need not wonder from whence their deliverance will come until they regain the hearts of their children.

Thus saith the LORD, Stand ye in the ways, and see, and ask for the old paths, where is the good way, and walk therein, and ye shall find rest for your souls. But they said, We will not walk therein.
– Jeremiah 6:16

Piety and Patricide

Patricide is at the heart of modernity’s impiety. Fallen man is enmity with God and thus seeks to kill God and recast himself as the divine creator. This immediately places man at war with nature and history, for both testify to man’s limitations as a creature, his very real reliance upon the true creator, and God’s hand in history. 20th century author Richard Weaver writes:

First of all, I would maintain that modern man is a parricide. He has taken up arms against, and he has effectually slain, what former men have regarded with filial veneration. He has not been conscious of crime but has, on the contrary — and certainly this is nothing new to students of human behavior– has regarded his action as a proof of virtue.

~~ Richard Weaver; Ideas Have Consequences; p. 153

Weaver here posits that modern man has intentionally defiled what pious men once venerated. Weaver continues:

The most vocal part of modern impiety is the freely expressed contempt for the past. The habit is to look upon history in the same way that we look upon nature, as an unfortunate inheritance, and we struggle with equal determination to free ourselves from each.

~~ Richard Weaver; Ideas Have Consequences; pp. 163

Contempt for the past may be the most vocal facet of modernity but it is not the underlying root. To truly appreciate the spirit of the age one must dig a little deeper.
Rebellious and patricidal, modern man can be defined in three ways: he is Promethean, he is Dionysian, and He is Oedipal. These terms should be explained in the reverse order from which they are provided.

Oedipal man, following the Greek myth of Oedipus, seeks to kill his father and commit incest with his mother. This ancient mythology was for Sigmund Freud the driving force behind all human behavior. Whether Freud understood it literally or symbolically is not always clear but regardless it offers a helpful insight into the actions of sinful men. As already noted, sinful man is at war with God. Even the very creation reminds man of God, His sovereignty, and His presence. This total ownership and total presence on the part of God means that fallen man is in total enmity to God. In order to win his war, he must kill God and become master of the created order. Of course this is impossible because man is made from dust, finite, and subject to decay and eventually death. Subject to these inherent limitations, man’s autonomous rule can only be an unnatural one. And just as Oedipus’s unnatural rule was symbolized in his taking of his own mother, so too does modern man seek to supplant God by exerting an unnatural rule over God’s creation. Frederick Nietzsche, 19th century German philosopher, gives insight into why man, in order to supplant God, must defile all things.

With regard to the mother-wooing, riddle-solving Oedipus, an immediate interpretation comes to mind, that here through the oracular and magic powers the force of both present and future, the rigid law of individuation as well as the magic of nature is broken, the preconditioning cause is that beforehand a monstrous act against nature — something on the order of incest — must have taken place; then how is one to force nature to reveal her secrets other than by victoriously going against her, that is, through an act contrary to nature. I see this recognition sketched out in that hideous trinity of Oedipus’s fate: the same man who solves the riddle of nature — that double-edged Sphinx — must also violate the holy order of nature as both parricide and spouse of his mother. Indeed the meaning of the myth seems inescapable, that wisdom and especially Dionysian wisdom is an unnatural horror, and that the man who through his knowledge plunges nature into the abyss of annihilation, experiences in his own being the disintegration of nature. “The point of wisdom turns against the wise; wisdom is a crime against nature.”

~~ Frederick Nietzsche; The Birth of Tragedy; works I. 556-57

For Nietzsche true wisdom is a crime against nature and leads to man’s ultimate annihilation. He gives us a clue when he defines this deadly and criminal wisdom as Dionysian. For it is not the wisdom which is hid in Christ, the lawful creator of all things, but rather it is a “crime against nature” and a “monstrous act.”
These monstrous acts play themselves out all around us. From our society’s obsession with representing father figures as malevolent tyrants (a form of patricide) to it’s insatiable appetite for the sick and depraved. The trajectory of Oedipal man is an ever-heightening crescendo of willful, self-conscious, and intentional defiance to the will of God.
Having cast off the true wisdom found in Christ, man turns instead to the Dionysian wisdom which Nietzsche earlier pointed to.

Dionysus was the Greek god of sensuality, madness, and religious ecstasy. David, writing in the forty-sixth Psalm, instructs the righteous to be still and know God. Elijah the prophet knew God not as a raging wind or burning fire but as a still and small voice. In contrast to this the worship of Dionysus elevates the sensual, the ecstatic, and the irrational. Modern man is insane and he knows it. The very earth itself and the wonders of creation declare God’s glory therefore they cannot be considered logically or rationally. In order to drown out the “still small voice” man’s life must be a crashing orchestra of carnality and sin. It was customary for the virgins of Greece to dance naked on the mountainsides in honor of Dionysus. Clearly this sensuous spirit is pervasive in our land today.

The third prevalent force in modernity’s rebellion is Prometheanism. Prometheus was a figure in Greek lore known for his mischievous creations. The Greeks ascribed to him the creation of mankind and then subsequently teaching them to rebel against Zeus. His rebellious creations were instigated by his own rebellious nature. This parallels to modern man’s tendency to invest his creative energies into perversion and mischief. God gave man the capacity to be creative, to add refinement and glory to the world established by God. But man would rather not see his creations bring glory to God so instead he walks a Promethean path. Much like Viktor Frankenstein’s monster, the works of man’s hands have become as wondrous and magical as they are monstrous and unnatural. This is by design. From the ugliness of much modern architecture to the willful distortions of Picasso, man seeks to create a world that does not reflect the image of God but himself. If man can build a synthetic and fake world, if he can pervert, mar, and degrade everything that God has given him, then maybe, just maybe he can silence the testimony of the witness of God in this world.

Modern man’s rebellion is a magical quest. He has denied the natural things given him of God and has instead turned to the unnatural ways of Oedipus, Dionysus, and Prometheus. In his quest to kill God man must become the magician, employing these three unnatural spirits in his war to overthrow reality. C. S. Lewis well describes the magical underpinnings of man’s rebellion:

There is something which unites magic and applied science while separating both from the “wisdom” of earlier ages. For the wise men of old the cardinal problem had been how to conform the soul to reality, and the solution had been knowledge, self-discipline, and virtue. For magic and applied science alike the problem is how to subdue reality to the wishes of men: the solution is a technique; and both, in the practice of this technique, are ready to do things hitherto regarded as disgusting and impious — such as digging up and mutilating the dead.

~~ CS Lewis; The Abolition of Man; p. 88

Lewis again hits at the distinction between that wisdom which is from above and that which reflects the spirit of Oedipus, Dionysus, and Prometheus. The former being lawful, obedient, and receptively creative; in short: pious. The latter being mischievous, sensuous, and magical; in short: patricidal. The distinction between pious man and patricidal man is that the pious man seeks to bring his behavior into conformity with the natural order God established while patricidal man seeks to conform reality to his own fallen nature. In his quest to kill and replace God, patricidal man is willing to do things heretofore regarded as “disgusting and impious.”
Christians today must be extremely careful that in their efforts to rebuild upon ancient foundations they do not include in their construction materials any of the corrosive elements which rebellion has amassed to itself. They must put away that wisdom which Lewis termed magical and which Nietzsche styled as a crime against nature. Failure to do so will only be to return to the same path that has led to this current state of ruin.

Christian Fraternity

Protestants and Romanists would do well to bury the hatchet for the time being. Over the last 5 centuries Romanist aggression has killed at least two hundred thousand (that’s very very conservative) Protestants and the Romanists maintain that Protestants have stolen their property, given no justification for secession, etc..
My own ancestors appear to have been Moravians who fled Bohemia when it collapsed due to consistent attacks from Romanist Austria during the early 18th century. Compile that with a consistent adherence to the Reformed standards and a belief that the mass is blasphemous and this is no defense of Romanism.
The world as it comes down to us today is at a cross roads. The century old forces of postmodernism have used up a great deal of their capital and they are wearing thin. Even as old seeds bear many sour grapes, people are turning away from the eschewing of transcendent truth and recovering Christendom’s true inheritance of Christianity, family, locality, and tradition. The pushback is tremendous. The powers which array themselves against a renewed Christendom have all the worldly advantages. Mass communication, the world’s largest militaries, and many many other resources are squarely in their hands.
To navigate these waters it is paramount that Christians properly survey the situation and understand the combatants.
When Mohammadens attack Christian civilization, they do not discern distinctions between Coptic, Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic, Protestant, or any other strand of Christianity. Whether it is the burning of the library at Alexandria, the massacres of Smyrna and Antioch, the sacking of Constantinople, or the kidnapping of Welshman along the English coasts, they have always sought one goal: the destruction of Christendom.
When postmodernists assault the Christian commitment to God’s unchanging law they too do not single out any particular group of Christians. The Romanist nation of Argentina has maintained perhaps the most conservative commitment to anti-abortion policy in the Western World out of fidelity to God’s law and this ground that has been held should not be thought lightly of by Protestants simply because those faithful souls were Romanist.
When the media slanders Christians and Christian history they have little concern if the target is Romanist or Protestant.
Both Protestants and Romanists must realize that we have common enemies and we must be careful how we relate to one another and the world which wishes to destroy us both. Gleefully rejoicing over the RCC’s pedophilia problem is an incredibly short-sighted thing for Protestants to do. In the 2017-2018 grand jury investigation in PA the attorneys handed down not even a half dozen indictments out of three hundred priests investigated for illicit sexual conduct. This relative lack of scandal did not prevent the media from having a field day with the fact that three hundred priests were under investigation. Were Protestants indignant that the US justice system had spent tons of money and the media had created a circus out of what proved to be a non-event? Rather they joined hands with the secular media to berate the Romanists as “perverts” and “getting what they deserved”. Undoubtedly the doctrine of clerical celibacy is unbiblical and does lend towards pedophilia, however this does not excuse blatant lying by the media in attempt to slander Roman dioceses and it does not justify over-eager Protestants joining in the slander.
While Protestant missionaries have outworked Romanists in converting the heathen over the last four centuries, Romanist charity networks and hospitals are an under-appreciated but indispensable part of our nation and those of Europe. Many of the leaders in the resurgent Christendom, such as Italy’s deputy PM Matteo Salvini and most of Hungary’s PM Viktor Orban’s supporters are Romanists. These are allies that we would do well to have in re-establishing ourselves amidst the ruins or our own civilization.
Over the last several decades many Romanists have awoken to the fact that their church hierarchy has apostatized. Many of them are disgruntled with the actions of those claiming to be their spokesmen the exact same way most Presbyterians, Baptists, Methodists, and Episcopalians feel betrayed by their denominations. May God lead them out of their error. May God lead us all out of errors and into a renewed Christian civilization.
In conclusion, Protestants hold the theological high-ground. The mass is blasphemy. Transubstantiation is not biblical. The divine rule of a universal prelate has little support from the 1st millennia of Christian history and no Biblical support. Purgatory, penance, indulgence, I could go on.
But at this point our cause is fraternal and we must see this. Celebrating in each others tragedies and joining hands with a world that hates us both is not acceptable. If one of us falls, the enemy’s efforts will be doubled against him that remains.
I pray that one day the Romanist schism comes to a close and Christendom can be visibly united. But let this be done in providence and wisdom and let not our civilization dig its own grave for clinging to a fratricidal spirit.

No Eulogies: a Southern essay

In I Kings 21, we see that Naboth did not feel that he had the right to sell the family land no matter how much money King Ahab offered. The land was not his except as a trust from his forefathers to the generations yet unborn.”

~~RJ Rushdoony

We have come to the place were every year another noble Southern family dies out, never to return. The effect that this renders is incalculable to us and incomprehensible to the mind not attuned to the appreciation of family and land. God grants land by providence and man’s chief method of glorifying God is by being a true husband and steward to the land which God has bestowed. Over the previous four centuries a particular people received a particular land. For many many generations the land was loved, cared for; families grew and were loyal to what God had given them. Like Naboth, the true Southerner looked over the head of his moment and peered into the future, he could not do otherwise. The close connection to the land and the deep impression left by one’s ancestors had driven home the point that life is fleeting and great works can only come into focus when viewed through the lense of decades, centuries, and generations. Today this inheritance is squandered and with every passing day a farm which was built up by generations goes fallow.

Materialism has built a world obsessed with wealth that slips through the fingers, that isn’t worth having. The Southerner long scorned this materialism, his was a romantic war against the pressing tides of “progress.” The Southerner did not believe in the value of motion for motions sake. Why take steps toward one’s own ruin? As the urban life spread and man was increasingly cut off from land, family, and tradition, the South became a haven and an ideal for those who were dissatisfied with the march of industrial progress, city slums, and multiculturalism. For generations the Southern farmer grew those native products of cotton, tobacco, peanuts; raised hogs, and worked close to home. Our cities were not the metropolitan, faceless sprawls of New York or Chicago, rather they were the centers of trade and refinement which grow naturally in the midst of an agrarian people. Our communities were not cold, mercenary outposts filled with strangers, but windows into the foundation of a culture which believed not in senseless change but in seeking conformity with an unchanging ideal. It was these factors: the long range vision, the commitment to land, the stability of family, the memories of lessons learned long ago, that made the South a bulwark against religious liberalism and social fragmentation.

Yet today the South has lost the heart of her children. Once proud families bow out with hardly a notice and certainly no eulogy. Short-sighted children perch, awaiting their opportunity to sell off assets accrued over centuries to finance their education at universities that will make them good progressive materialists and pluck up their roots. Communities shift, no longer having the five, six, or seven families that once populated them; now down to only two. Farms grow little more than government approved soy beans and corn. The cities, having lost their agricultural foundation, drift into the fusion of idleness and industrial “busy-work.”
In short, the South is barely the South any more. South New Jersey is perhaps more appropriate.

Nearly a century ago, essayist and author Stark Young asked us the question, do we continue on our ways in memoriam or in defense? My family still maintains the defense, we give no eulogy, no graveside sentimentalities. Undoubtedly we are lost, but that which is lost may yet be found, only God knows.

Every family that dies out will never be revived. A patriarch must look from the grave down through history and see that his ancestors defected from what he worked for.
Every farm that is sold off will never be reconstituted. A plot which once knew the hopes and fears of a man and women engaged in that most noble of tasks, folk who walked the land and knew it, must now bear the weight of those soul-less box plants which “Americans” call the subdivision.

Will this trend cease? Will the hearts of the children return unto their forefathers? I pray so.
May God be pleased to work in the hearts of this people, to bind that which is broken, and to build up the waste places.
We seek not to go back, our aim must be to build and our eye must be on the future. We must endeavor as never before to go forth building into the future in a manner and spirit that is in accord with our past.

“If anything is clear, it is that we can never go back, and neither this essay nor any intelligent person that I know in the South desires a literal restoration of the old Southern life, even if that were possible; dead days are gone, and if by some chance they should return, we should find them intolerable.”

~~ Stark Young

“An interesting commentary on the present is that people close to the soil appear to have longer memories than have the urban masses. Traditions there live for generations; what their grandfathers did is real to them. Consequently they may be said to assimilate lessons.”

~~ Richard Weaver

Biblical Parameters of Deception


Then the king of Egypt said to the Hebrew midwives, one of whom was named Shiprah and the other Puah, “When you serve as midwife to the Hebrew women and see them on the birthstool, if it be a son, you shall kill him, but if it be a daughter, she shall live.” But the midwives feared God and did not do as the king of Egypt commanded them, but let the male children live. So the king of Egypt called the midwives and said to them, “Why have you done this, and let the male children live?” The midwives said to Pharoah, “Because the Hebrew women are not like the Egyptian women, for they are vigorous and give birth before the midwife comes to them.” So God dealt well with the midwives. And the people multiplied and grew very strong. And because the midwives feared God, he gave them families.

–Exodus 1:14-21

God’s word is given to us for our instruction and direction in the faith. As the emissaries and laborers of our Lord’s kingdom on earth it is never sufficient for us to theorize of and give lip-service to the ways of our Lord. We must have practical logistics and tactics which aim to transition the implication of God’s righteous laws from the abstract and hypothetical to the concrete and corporeal. As we engage in this process we are to make full use of the wisdom, instruction, and commands given to us in the Old and New Testaments.

One such tactic which we find repeatedly employed in Scripture yet which always draws much controversy is the righteous use of deception. Deception, dishonesty, lying, whatever we should like to call it, is always a serious business and the Christian should approach the subject understanding that God hates a lying tongue and there is no place for liars in the heavenly Jerusalem. But lest we rush into places where angels dare not tread we must take a further look at the righteous use of deception as employed and divinely sanctioned by many saints in the Biblical accounts.

In the opening text cited above we find Hebrew women being forced by Pharoah to commit a very wicked act: murder children. So in response the midwives engage in a tactic which has drawn the condemnation of many Christian expositors and commentators through the ages: they lie. They don’t tell half-truths, remain silent, or attempt to conceal the matter. They plainly lie to Phaoroah’s face about the reality of the situation. These two midwives, Shiprah and Puah, were professionals in their vocation and they seem to be cabinet members, or advisors, of the Pharoah. Understanding that there were millions of Hebrews living in Egypt at this time they undoubtedly were the representatives before the Egyptian government of what had to be a multitude of professional Hebrew midwives. In fact we may gather from the Pharoah’s exact words, “When you serve as midwife to the Hebrew women …”, that these Hebrews were so skilled at their jobs that they served the Egyptians also. Being greatly skilled as midwives, a skill even recognized by their Egyptian masters, it is unthinkable that the Hebrew midwives were arriving late for deliveries.

So they are plainly lying. There is no way to get around the fact. These women are both giving a false report to the Egyptian head of state in order to conceal a massive network of behavior which is criminalized by the Egyptian state. Far from scolding the women for their actions the Scripture has nothing but praise. In order to properly understand this we must closely examine the divine directives which allow for this as well as the circumstances which necessitate such action.

Firstly, this is not the only place in Scripture where we see saints lie. To make merely a partial list of the Biblical accounts we must include Rahab’s lies to defend the Hebrew spies during the conquest of Jericho and in Genesis 12, 20, and 26 we find Abraham and Isaac lying to protect themselves and their families. In all of these instances a great many theologians do what Scripture does not do: pass condemnation. We must bear in mind that no matter what we think of the actions in the verses given they simply are not condemned by God. Instead of seeking to read “honest interpretations” back into the Biblical narrative we must submit our reasoning to the truth of God and skillfully seek out why it is that these saints are not condemned for their lies.

And the answer would be that wicked men who seek to trample on God’s law and harm others do not deserve the truth from us. Speaking to His disciples concerning judgment, Christ says,

Do not give dogs what is holy, and do not throw your pearls before pigs, lest they trample them underfoot and turn to attack you.[1]

Proverbs 11:13 instructs us thus:

Whoever goes about slandering reveals secrets, but he who is trustworthy in spirit keeps a thing covered.

Just as in war or times of intense distress God makes provision for one man to take another man’s life, so too there are Biblical provisions for deception and lying aimed at those who seek to harm either us or others. And there are many forms of falsity which the Bible shows to be legitimate tactics by which we may defend ourselves from harm and keep back dogs and swine from trampling down Christ’s kingdom.

Caleb rose to prominence under Moses as an adept spy[2]. What is spying other than employing deception against one’s enemies in war? That this is so has been plainly testified to by nations at war that treat uniform wearing combatants as POWs but execute plain-clothes spies for their actions.

In Judges 14 Samson intentionally deceives the Philistines using riddles so that the Lord might use him to deliver Israel from servitude.

While fleeing from Saul David feigns insanity before the king of Gath in order to preserve his life[3]. By pretending to be insane David was clearly lying to Achish about his mental state.

Further uses of legitimate deception involve camouflage to conceal a position during war-time and leaving a radio on at home to confuse potential thieves while the family is away. The point of the matter is that the Ninth Commandment, Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbor may not be reread as “thou shalt always tell all of the truth all of the time.”

All of the actions listed above must truly be listed as dishonesty. Yet we must remember that they are all things that, in certain and specific circumstances, are commended by the Bible as righteous and wise behavior.

I do hope at this point the reader can begin to see when and why the careful use of deception is not wrong or sinful. A further analogy that may prove helpful is to that of killing a man. God’s law strictly forbids taking another man’s life yet makes accommodation for self defense. Exodus 22:2 reads:

If a thief is found breaking in and is struck so that he dies, there shall be no bloodguilt for him …

19th century theologian Robert Dabney makes a very perceptive comment at this point, he says,

Man may kill, when the guilty life is forfeited to God, and He authorizes man to destroy it, as His agent. So, I conceive, extreme purposes of aggression, unjust and malignant, and aiming at our very existence, constitute a forfeiture of rights for the guilty assailant.[4]

In the same way that the thief found breaking in has forfeited his right to life so too the man who seeks to harm others has forfeited their right to the truth. So in the case of the Hebrew midwives, they not only had the Biblical right to deceive Pharoah in order to protect the lives of the Hebrew children, they had a moral imperative to do so. Allow me to liken the situation to taking a life again.

If a man is witness to a woman being molested by another man then he is Biblically obligated to help her even to the point of killing her assailant. The man who refuses to help the woman is a coward and morally perverse. These same circumstances can apply to lying. If the midwives telling the truth had led to the death of infants would they be morally justified for telling the truth? Would a bystander be justified for allowing a woman to be raped so that he himself would be innocent of battery or perhaps killing the woman’s attacker? If the Hebrew women had done anything other than lie to Pharoah they would have cast the precious pearls of Israel before the dogs and swine of Egypt and been responsible for their being trampled underfoot. The Bible holds their actions up to us as a righteous standard, let us not presume to be more righteous than God.

Second, in order to properly apply the Divine allowance for falsity we must carefully understand the prescribed conditions under which it is allowed. Plainly, it is not acceptable for children to lie to their parents about their room being clean or for you to lie to your boss about the schedule on your project at work and pretend that this is justifiable. I once heard an objection to this doctrine that if we are permitted to lie to God’s enemies in order to preserve ourselves then why could we not lie to a non-Christian store owner about goods we intend to purchase in order to preserve our financial estate. Such mockery is useless. In the same way that we may not shamelessly lie in order to further ourselves or even to avoid minor loss to ourselves we may not kill over trivialities and claim it as self-defense[5]. Imagine if the driver of a vehicle shot and killed a fellow motorist under the pretense that the other driver was endangering them and they have the right to protect themselves. Clearly, such petty objections to Biblical doctrine is caviling and a disgrace to God’s word.

In order for us to deceive another and it not be a violation of God’s holy law the circumstances which necessitate such an act must comport with the seriousness of those laid out in Scripture. As God’s creatures we may not seek to lessen or strengthen the force of His word in this area. We see Rahab lie to protect the spies from certain death. Abraham lies to protect himself and Sarah from death or molestation. Shiprah and Puah lie to save thousands of lives. All of these actions are Biblically justified and in fact righteous.

One objection which I should like to deal with before moving to applications is that God will reward us if we always tell the truth. The idea is that God, as sovereign over all things will reward our refusal to violate His commandments against lying by weaving a happy ending out of any situation we may be placed in. In response to this argument Christ plainly teaches us,

You shall not put the Lord your God to the test.[6]

If a thief inquires of you when your neighbors will be leaving for vacation so that they may have an easy time plundering their goods it is not a righteous thing to tell the truth. When Herod ordered the three Wise Men to inform him as to Christ’s whereabouts it would not have been a righteous thing for them to tell Herod the truth. If your telling the truth clearly serves the purpose of bringing devastating harm to yourself or your neighbor, it is a wicked thing to do.


Having established the validity and even necessity of dealing falsely with those who seek to do serious harm to us or our neighbor let us examine a few situations where this doctrine may legitimately be employed.

A school principle is required by the federal government educational standards to teach twelve year olds in depth sexual education classes. By doing this the children are given dangerous exposure to what can easily lead to addictions to pornogrophy or sinful sexual behavior. It is perfectly legitimate for the principle to instruct his teachers that they will not be doing the sexual education classes which the government standards require and then forge the test scores in order to forego punishment or investigation of the school over which he presides.

A second example may be drawn from the medical field.

It is becoming common that doctors be required, upon the writing of a prescription, to ask invasive questions of the patient and then to supply the information gained to the FBI and FDA. For a practicing doctor to act as a spy for government agencies and ascertain information regarding their patient’s ownership of firearms or storage of paper money and precious metals is morally wrong. The doctor here has not only the option but the moral obligation to conceal the private matters of those whom he seeks to serve.

A final example regards modern child abuse laws. Governments today, believing that children belong rightly to themselves and not God and the family, steadily increase the number of laws which place families at risk of having their children taken from them. Parents in America today can face hardship from the authorities regarding the right to their own children if they fail to earn a certain amount of money, have too small of a house, or do not meet the federal standards for education. If a Social Services worker comes to your house inquiring about your neighbor’s income and methods of schooling, should you tell them the truth? Is it righteous for you to reveal things about your neighbor to government agencies that might result in the seizure of your neighbor’s children or land? Again, in this circumstance the same as the others, you have the moral obligation to protect your fellow man.


In the Biblical account of the midwives before Pharoah it would have been a wicked act for them to deal honestly with the Egyptian power structure and condemn thousands of Israelite babies to death. God’s law gives us both the pattern and parameters for righteous deception. Let us not seek to moralize and pretend to be more righteous than our Lord but rather be shrewd as serpents and innocent as doves as we work for the establishment of His kingdom in righteousness, power, and glory.

[1] Matthew 7:6

[2] Numbers 13:6,30

[3] 1 Samuel 21:13-15

[4] Robert L. Dabney: Syllabus and Notes of the Course of Systematic and Polemic Theology (Richmond, Virginia: Presbyterian Committee on Publications, 1871,1890, p. 425 f.

[5] Christ’s command to turn the other cheek is very useful in such situations

[6] Matthew 4:7b